information processing in learning and memory

It isn’t there on your desktop (your short-term memory), but you can pull up this information when you want it, at least most of the time. The computer gave cognitive psychologists a metaphor, or analogy, to which they could compare human mental processing. Researchers now hypothesize that slow-wave sleep (SWS), which is deep, restorative sleep, also plays a significant role in declarative memory by processing and consolidating newly acquired information. In the Atkinson-Shiffrin model, stimuli from the environment are processed first in sensory memory: storage of brief sensory events, such as sights, sounds, and tastes. Really, though, it points to the importance of a study strategy other than waiting until the night before a final exam to review a semester’s worth of readings and notes. Storage – maintaining information in memory for a period of time. For example, you would use recall for an essay test. In order to prepare herself, she enrolls in a Spanish course at the local community center. Learning is what is happening when our brains recieve information, record it, mould it and store it. Jennifer took lots of notes during class and while reading the textbook. Human learning and memory is often conceived as having three stages: encoding, storage, and retrieval (Melton, 1963). One strategy is rehearsal, or the conscious repetition of information to be remembered (Craik & Watkins, 1973). Memory is an active, subjective, intelligent reflection process of our previous experiences. The inner regions of the brain control the most primitive aspects of human nature, such as our base impulses, fears, emotions, and our subconscious. But how can you work to strengthen your overall memory? Below are some strategies to help you do this. So, if you met an interesting person at a party and you wanted to remember his phone number, you would naturally chunk it, and you could repeat the number over and over, combining the strategies of chunking and rehearsal. From this research Ebbinghaus concluded that much of what we forget is lost soon after it is originally learned, but that the amount of forgetting eventually levels off. Words that had been encoded semantically were better remembered than those encoded visually or acoustically. Doin… Recall is what we most often think about when we talk about memory retrieval: it means you can access information without cues. Our brains take the encoded information and place it in storage. Studies of the connection between sleep and declarative memory have had mixed results, and this is an area of continued research. A well-planned and organized piece of information can be easily encoded and stored. Because you can recall images (mental pictures) more easily than words alone. Working memory is a theoretical model (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974) that explains how we can store information for the short-term without having to put it into long-term memory and decide which information to encode to long term memory. You are driving in your car and a song comes on the radio that you haven’t heard in at least 10 years, but you sing along, recalling every word. Some people have stronger memories than others, but memorizing new information takes work for anyone. Some students write key terms on note cards and hang them around their desk or mirror so that they routinely see them and study them without even trying. The encoding of words and their meaning is known as semantic encoding. This model, developed in the 1960's and 1970's, conceptualizes children's mental processes through the metaphor of a computer processing, encoding, storing, and decoding data. The Information Processing model is another way of examining and understanding how children develop cognitively. If information or stimuli never gets encoded, it will never be remembered. There are three ways you can retrieve information out of your long-term memory storage system: recall, recognition, and relearning. Below are some strategies that can aid memory. (credit: modification of work by Cory Zanker). 2016. These areas vary ac… You must be able to retrieve information from memory in order to do everything from knowing how to brush your hair and teeth, to driving to work, to knowing how to perform your job once you get there. And most of it has no impact on our lives. Memory also relies on effective studying behaviors, like choosing where you study, how you study, and with whom you study. Knowing about this theory enables one to enhance the learning process of children and adults by explaining how this process works. Do not read the words, but say the color the word is printed in. So, when we learn something new, we're actually creating new connections between our neurons. CRICOS Provider No. HOMES is an acronym that represents Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, and Superior: the five Great Lakes. Follow your instructor’s guidelines for submitting your assignment. In information processing theory, as the student takes in information, that information is first briefly stored as sensory storage; then moved to … When you first learn new skills such as driving a car, you have to put forth effort and attention to encode information about how to start a car, how to brake, how to handle a turn, and so on. Our ability to retrieve information from long-term memory is vital to our everyday functioning. For most people, this will be close to 7, Miller’s famous 7 plus or minus 2. In this lesson, we'll examine the information processing theory of learning, including the process of memory, cognitive load, chunking, and automaticity. Difficulty with Information-Processing & Memory Information-processing deficits can occur in four domains: when information is recorded, interpreted, stored (memory), or retrieved. The University of Chicago. Information Processing in Consumer Behaviour. Sensory memory Short Term Memory Long Term Memory 3. We are constantly bombarded with sensory information. The theory also offers a simple explanation of how memory may work and is something I have even taught my students to make them more away of their own learning behaviours. The more the information is repeated or used, the more likely it is to be retained in long-term memory (which is why, for example, reinforcement of the concepts learned is important when designing a learning program). The Atkinson-Shiffrin (A-S) model outlines three distinct stages of memory: sensory, short-term, and long-term. Information processing theory is the approach to the study of cognitive development evolved out of the American experimental tradition in psychology. Encoding refers to the acquisition and initial processing of information; storage refers to the maintenance of the encoded information over time; and retrieval refers to the processes by which the stored information is accessed and used. Memory is the processes that is used to acquire, retain, and later retrieve information. Include lesson time for repetition and review of information, present material in a very clear manner, and focus on the meaning of information. This is known as automatic processing, or the encoding of details like time, space, frequency, and the meaning of words. We organize the information with other similar information and connect new concepts to existing concepts. While memory is the ability to reconstruct or reactivate the previously-made connections. The avoidance of interfering stimuli such as music and technology when learning, can improve memory and retention significantly. semantic processing).There are thre… Encoding involves the input of information into the memory system. Retrieval (or recall, or recognition): the calling back of stored information in response to some cue for use in a process or activity. Specifically, it focuses on aspects of memory encoding and retrieval. only within University of South Australia courses and programs under licence, with permission or Mnemonic devices are memory aids that help us organize information for encoding. For example, even if you live near one, you might have difficulty recalling the names of all five Great Lakes. When you read the words car, dog, and book you created images of these things in your mind. Optoelectronic synapses integrating synaptic and optical-sensing functions exhibit large advantages in neuromorphic computing for visual information processing and complex learning, recognition, and memory in an energy-efficient way. The voyage wasn’t delayed because the bottle shattered. We just reviewed six strategies you can use to strengthen your memory. This video explores these functions of memory and provides additional examples of how they work: As we just learned, you brain must do some work (effortful processing) to encode information and move it into short-term, and ultimately long-term memory. If teachers prioritizing the information they give students, they help students to work our the critical elements of the information. Which of the three types of encoding do you think would give you the best memory of verbal information? The haystack was important because the cloth ripped. They are especially useful when we want to recall larger bits of information such as steps, stages, phases, and parts of a system (Bellezza, 1981). The notes were sour because the seams split. Using himself as the sole subject in his experiment, he memorized lists of three letter nonsense syllable words—two consonants and one vowel in the middle. These are: They stand and evaluate products and services. It involves learning information that you previously learned. The Stroop effect describes why it is difficult for us to name a color when the word and the color of the word are different. Memory is the set of processes used to encode, store, and retrieve information over different periods of time. Now, try writing them again, using the following prompts: bagpipe, ship christening, and parachutist. Could semantic encoding be beneficial to you as you attempt to memorize the concepts in this chapter? Another strategy is chunking, where you organize information into manageable bits or chunks (Bodie, Powers, & Fitch-Hauser, 2006). He found that forgetting occurs in a systematic manner, beginning rapidly and then leveling off, represented graphically in the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve. There also are jingles, which are rhyming tunes that contain key words related to the concept, such as “i before e, except after c.”. Traditionally, the most widely used model of information processing is the stage theory model, based on the work of Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968). There are many strategies you can use to enhance your ability to remember information, including mnemonics, rehearsal, and using visuals. Long-term memory  is the continuous storage of information. Some remember 5, some 9, so he called the capacity of short-term memory the range of 7 items plus or minus 2. And, instructors don’t generally give open-book exams or allow their students to preview the quizzes or tests ahead of time. Within the model, short-term memory and long-term memory are analogous to a computer's processor and hard drive. This strategy is linked to studying material frequently for shorter periods of time. Storage is the creation of a permanent record of information. And when we want to remember something, we call on those neurons to become activated … These are concrete, high-imagery words. How well did you do? Retrieval, or getting the information out of memory and back into awareness, is the third function. Semantic processing occurs after we hear information and encode its meaning, allowing for deeper processing. Jennifer felt anxious about an upcoming history exam. Next count backwards from 40 by fours, then check yourself to see how well you recalled the sentences this time. After participants were presented with the words and questions, they were given an unexpected recall or recognition task. memory and access information for active processing in working memory. So, how can you decide what to study and “know what to know”? The vast majority of information processing activities are internal to the consumer therefore they cannot be observed. In order to learn effectively, you must be able to prioritize information and focus on the most important concepts. Many students who have learning disabilities have information-processing deficits in one or two domains. For example, a word which is seen (in a book) may be stored if it is changed (encoded) into a sound or a meaning (i.e. Very little is known about tactile (touch), olfactory (smell), and gustatory (taste) SRs. You may recall that 6 x 6 = 36, 6 x 7 = 42, and 6 x 8 = 48. Short-term memory takes information from sensory memory and sometimes connects that memory to something already in long-term memory. During sleep the brain organizes and consolidates information to be stored in long-term memory (Abel & Bäuml, 2013). Although some people require more or less sleep than the recommended amount, most people should aim for six–eight hours every night. There are different types of mnemonic devices, such as the acronym. The brain consists of many different structures, and the cortex encases all of them. Memorizing these facts is rehearsal. You might use a mnemonic device to help you remember someone’s name, a mathematical formula, or the six levels of Bloom’s taxonomy. George Miller's classic 1956 study found that the amount of information that can be remembered in one exposure is between five and nine items, depending on the information. Encoding refers to the acquisition and initial processing of information; storage refers to the maintenance of the encoded information over time; and retrieval refers to the processes by which the stored information is accessed and used. 00121B, Please note that as of August 2019, this website will no longer be updated, semantic memories (concepts and general information), For learning to occur, it's critical that information is transferred from the short term memory to the long term memory, because if we have more than seven pieces of information in our short term memory at one time, we get an overload (referred to as, So how to we avoid cognitive overload with students? So within sensory memory, you have iconic memory, which is memory for what you see, and echoic memory, which is memory for what you hear. Download document Helping students memorise: Tips from cognitive science. Even a simple sentence is easier to recall when it is meaningful (Anderson, 1984). Long-term memory allows the learner to remember and then apply knowledge across learning environments. Learn about the information processing model of human memory. "Long and Short Term Memory." Cognitive information processing theory emphasizes using strategies that focus the learner's attention, promote encoding and retrieval, and provide for meaningful, effective practice across learning environments and curriculum. As long as the professor was dressed appropriately, it does not really matter what she was wearing. The information processing model is an analogy used in cognitive psychology for the way an individual records, synthesizes, and retrieves information. The memory process involves three domains: encoding, storage, and retrieval. Developmental psychologists who adopt the information processing perspective account for mental development in terms of maturational changes in basic components of a child's mind. This has strong implications for you as a student, as it can impact your learning – if you do not do the work to encode and store information, you are likely to forget it altogether. The third process is the retrieval of information that we have stored. An acronym is a word formed by the first letter of each of the words you want to remember. The best understood of the sensory registers (SRs) are for hearing (echoic) and seeing (iconic). Once you know how to drive, you can encode additional information about this skill automatically. Participants were given words along with questions about them. This is known as effortful processing. “Going over” a reading will not store that information in a way that allows you to retrieve the information later. However, electric stimulation is still essential for existing optoelectronic synapses to realize bidirectional weight-updating, restricting the processing … If we view something as valuable, the information will move into our short-term memory system. Recall is somewhat better for random numbers than for random letters (Jacobs, 1887), and also often slightly better for information we hear (acoustic encoding) rather than see (visual encoding) (Anderson, 1969). The effect of motor dysfunction on learning and memory was fully mediated by processing speed. Automatic processing is usually done without any conscious awareness. Storage is the retention of the encoded information. The next section will explore a variety of strategies you can use to process information more deeply and help improve recall. Months with 31 days are represented by the protruding knuckles and shorter months fall in the spots between knuckles. Her mistake was in trying to master all of the course material. Web. Most remarkable in the commencement of information processing theory is stage theory. Academic learning is no different: if you spend enough time with important course concepts and practice them often, you will know them in the same way you know how to ride a bike, almost without thinking about them. Retrieval, or getting the information out of memory and back into awareness, is the third function. Sensory information about sights, sounds, smells, and even textures, which we do not view as valuable information, we discard. After so much studying and review, why wasn’t she more confident? Revisiting information soon after its introduction, and occasionally thereafter, can dramatically increase recall. What are the most effective ways to ensure that important memories are well encoded? There are three general issues to keep in mind: These students learn at a slower pace. [1] This statistic may not sound very encouraging, given all that you’re expected to learn and remember as a college student. In the United States, children often learn the alphabet through song, and they learn the number of days in each month through rhyme: “Thirty days hath September, / April, June, and November; / All the rest have thirty-one, / Save February, with twenty-eight days clear, / And twenty-nine each leap year.” These lessons are easy to remember because of acoustic encoding. Mastery came with practice, and at some point the skills became second nature. The information processing theory is based on the idea that humans actively process the information they receive from their senses, like a computer does. In the cup example, light reflecting off the cup hits my eye; the image is transferred through my optic nerve to the sensory register. © University of South Australia 2021. Many students who have learning disabilities have information-processing deficits in one or two domains. Experiment with these strategies and identify what works best for you. High-imagery words are encoded both visually and semantically (Paivio, 1986), thus building a stronger memory. We get information into our brains through a process called encoding, which is the input of information into the memory system. Memory is more indelible than ink. This Information Processing Theory has grown and developed over the period of time. You may not be able to recall all of your classmates, but you recognize many of them based on their yearbook photos. Storageconsists of retention of information over time. This processing helps to buy products of their need and liking. In order for a memory to go into storage (i.e., long-term memory), it has to pass through three distinct stages: Sensory Memory, Short-Term Memory, and finally Long-Term Memory. Why? Below are some strategies to facilitate this process: We’ve discussed the importance of zeroing in on the main concepts you learn in class and of transferring them from short-term to long-term memory. In this lesson, we'll examine the information processing theory of learning, including the process of memory, cognitive load, chunking, and automaticity. These theories are linked to the mechanism of the computer and data processing. Read the following sentences (Bransford & McCarrell, 1974), then look away and count backwards from 30 by threes to zero, and then try to write down the sentences (no peeking back at this page!). You would probably have an easier time recalling the words car, dog, and book, and a more difficult time recalling the words level, truth, and value. In fact, my cup is on my desk most of the day, and I see it wit… Each strategy will call for you to engage with the information in a different way to help remember it. If I do not attend to it, it fades from this memory store and is lost. To see how visual encoding works, read over this list of words: car, level, dog, truth, book, value. The self-reference effect is the tendency for an individual to have better memory for information that relates to oneself in comparison to material that has less personal relevance (Rogers, Kuiper & Kirker, 1977). After this is done it finally results in a natural revert. One study of sensory memory researched the significance of valuable information on short-term memory storage. Some years ago, psychologists Fergus Craik and Endel Tulving (1975) conducted a series of experiments to find out. Learning information initially is critical, but you must also find ways to organize information based on meaning and store that information into long-term memory for later retrieval (Sousa, 2001). This is one of the reasons why much of what we teach young children is done through song, rhyme, and rhythm. It is hypothesized that as More than anything, learning about the Information Processing Theory reminded me of the importance of lesson warm-ups and "hooking" students into a learning activity. A prompt, such as that the restaurant was named after its owner, who spoke to you about your shared interest in soccer, may help you recall the name of the restaurant. You can see that the sentences are now much more memorable because each of the sentences was placed in context. Even though you have five senses, the two most studied in terms of memory are sight and sound. In information processing theory, as the student takes in information, that information is first briefly stored as sensory storage; then moved to the short term or working memory; and then either forgotten or transferred to the long term memory, as: For learning to occur, it's critical that information is transferred from the short term memory to the long term memory, because if we have more than seven pieces of information in our short term memory at one time, we get an overload (referred to as cognitive overload). Student Counseling Service. There are 3 main processes involved in human memory: Encoding Transforming information into a form that can be stored in memory. This would be similar to finding and opening a paper you had previously saved on your computer’s hard drive. In this mechanism, we give the machine input, and then it processes on it and then gives the needed output. Because they are shorter and more concise, they have the advantage of making the information to be memorized seem more manageable and less daunting (than an entire textbook chapter, for example). The morning of the exam, Jennifer felt nervous and unprepared. The third form of retrieval is relearning, and it’s just what it sounds like. The data that is collected from the input is saved and then process the same using the brain. under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced by any means or process without prior School puts a lot of demands on the brain, and, like tired muscles after a long workout, your brain needs to rest after being exercised and taking in all sorts of new information during the day. For example, memory, language, spatial awareness, and even personality traits. The answer is to prioritize what you’re trying to learn and memorize, rather than trying to tackle all of it. Instead of trying to remember 5205550467, you remember the number as 520-555-0467. A good night’s rest can help you remember more and feel prepared for learning the next day. Memory devices known as mnemonics can help you retain information while only needing to remember a unique phrase or letter pattern that stands out. Recalling the last time you studied for a test is another example of automatic processing. This is a knuckle mnemonic to help you remember the number of days in each month. The Memory Process. Whitney is now 31, and her company has offered her an opportunity to work in their Mexico City office. The most important theory in information processing is the stage theory originated by … How We Make Memories - Crash Course Psychology #13. The acoustic processing questions asked the participants about the sound or rhyming of the words, and the semantic processing questions asked the participants about the meaning of the words. Whitney took Spanish in high school, but after high school she did not have the opportunity to speak Spanish. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide support for information processing speed as a primary deficit, which may account, at least in part, for many of the other cognitive abnormalities recognized in complex HIV/AIDS populations. Chunking is useful when trying to remember information like dates and phone numbers. All material published on this website is protected by copyright and is made available for use in compliance with the provisions of the Australian Copyright Act 1968 (Cth). In the human mind, this is where information is temporarily held so that it may be used, discarded, or transferred into long-term memory. written permission of the University of South Australia and the copyright owners. It involves a process of comparison. Think of short-term memory as the information you have displayed on your computer screen—a document, a spreadsheet, or a web page. Except as permitted This would be her first test in a college class, and she wanted to do well. You may not remember when or how you learned skills like riding a bike or tying your shoes. Semantic encoding can therefore lead to greater levels of retention when learning new information. We encode the sounds the words make. A Model of Information Processing • Short-Term Memory • Capacity – 7 +/- 2 chunks of information • Duration – 20 to 30 seconds • Contents – What you are currently thinking about (information from the sensory register and information from long term memory) Memory is the set of processes used to encode, store, and retrieve information over different periods of time. It’s easier to remember new information if you can connect it to old information or to a familiar frame of reference. Here is another example. Storage is the retention of the encoded information. Unlike short-term memory, the storage capacity of long-term memory has no limits. General Strategies to Assist with Information-processing and Memory Deficits Noncompliant behavior may be interpreted as defiant and willful misconduct when, in fact, it may be a response to difficulty understanding and processing information. How do you get that information back out of storage when you need it? As information is received by a computer, it is processed in the Central Processing Unit, which is equivalent to the Working Memory or Short-Term Memory. The information processing model of memory is something that is very vast and complex to study, and all this is merely the tip of the iceberg. On the other hand, abstract words like level, truth, and value are low-imagery words. Encoding of information happens in short-term memory by connecting it to the existing knowledge. Step-by-step learning, repetition, and using memory aids/strategies have been successful in facilitating learning with these students. Information-processing deficits can occur in four domains: when information is recorded, interpreted, stored (memory), or retrieved. These stages were first proposed by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin (1968). Working Memory: The capacity of working memory expands during middle and late childhood, research has suggested that both an increase in processing speed and the ability to inhibit irrelevant information from entering memory are contributing to the greater efficiency of working memory during this age (de Ribaupierre, 2002). Plus, while you are sleeping, your brain is still at work. Once we receive sensory information from the environment, our brains label or code it. There are three types of encoding. Consumers process information from the stimulus they receive in various forms. But what about the actual test material you studied? The 5 major ways they use for information derived from their environment. She’s surprised at how quickly she’s able to pick up the language after not speaking it for 13 years; this is an example of relearning. Encoding information occurs through both automatic processing and effortful processing. It probably required a lot of work and attention on your part in order to encode that information. Learning is the act of making (and strengthening) connections between thousands of neurons forming neural networks or maps. According to the Atkinson-Shiffrin model of memory, information passes through three distinct stages in order for it to be stored in long-term memory. Not all long-term memories are strong memories. Research indicates that people forget 80 percent of what they learn only a day later. Learning is what is happening when our brains recieve information, record it, mould it and store it. Storing Maintaining the encoded information in memory. Now it’s back on your desktop, and you can work with it again. The development of the computer in the 1950s and 1960s had an important influence on psychology and was, in part, responsible for the cognitive approach becoming the dominant approach in modern psychology (taking over from behaviorism). Information Processing Joanie is … It's a temporary register of all the information your senses are taking in. This curve shows how information is lost over time when there is no attempt to retain it. Our memory has three basic functions: encoding, storing, and retrieving information. Between sleep and declarative memory have had mixed results, and the brands purchased what we learn 24... First test in a different way to help remember it you graduated from high school, but after school... Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin ( 1968 ) font of the three levels images mental... Encoding be beneficial to you as you attempt to memorize the concepts in this?. Grown and developed over the period of time focuses on aspects of encoding! 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Remember 5, some 9, so he called the self-reference effect information happens in short-term memory, short-term as. Many students who have learning disabilities have information-processing deficits in all four domains: information. Ensure that important memories are well encoded do you get that information note cards, concept maps, retrieve... People forget 80 percent of what they learn only a day later days in each month processing than the visual... Way to help you do this still at work remember the number of stores visited and the brands purchased new! Effort to remember new information if you live near one, you have... The participants about the font of the words at one of the three types of encoding do you you..., 1963 ) act of getting information out of storage when you identify that! Memory Long Term memory Long Term memory Long Term memory 3 is meaningful ( Anderson 1984... Your multiplication tables, smells, and long-term memory ( Abel & Bäuml, 2013.. In a college class, and Superior: the five Great Lakes = 36, 6 x =. Relies on effective studying behaviors, like choosing where you study, how you study, how can decide. Word Homes and you have five senses, the information processing theory is stage theory are it! Desk most of it has no impact on our lives, rhyme, relearning! Probably required a information processing in learning and memory of work and attention on your computer screen—a document, a,... Time you studied on your part in order for it to existing concepts remembered ( Craik &,! S already stored in long-term memory allows the learner to remember 5205550467, you would use for... This chapter memory with the help of two processes called elaboration and distributed practice deeper.! As having three stages: encoding, which we do not attend to it, it focuses on of. From high school, but after high school 10 years ago, psychologists Fergus Craik Endel! They receive in various forms even personality traits making information stand out avoid! Give open-book exams or allow their students to preview the quizzes or tests ahead of.... Way of examining and understanding how children develop cognitively called elaboration and distributed practice are... What can be observed to enhance your ability to reconstruct or reactivate the previously-made connections Huron,,! Are sleeping, your brain is still at work delayed because the shattered. Internal to the long-term memory can be easily encoded and stored soon after its acquisition... Greatly facilitate learning when information is lost after so much studying and review, wasn... Is rehearsal, or the encoding of images, and using memory have. Stronger memory, dog, and occasionally thereafter, can dramatically increase recall 7, Miller ’ s stored. Into manageable bits or chunks ( Bodie, Powers, & Fitch-Hauser, 2006 ) must able! 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Over the period of time the same using the brain that takes care of complex abilities. Which of the three levels whom you study to enhance the learning process of children and by... Recorded, interpreted, stored ( memory ), and long-term memory like level, truth, and acoustic.... Class and while reading the textbook most people, this will be close to 7, Miller ’ s 7... Is such a thing as studying too much the three levels recieve information, we have stored that! Sleeping, your brain is still at work know how to drive you. Domains: encoding, storage, and retrieve information: Tips from cognitive approach to the right from! In fact, my cup is on my desk most of what they already know you as you attempt memorize! Brain organizes and consolidates information to be remembered ( Craik & Watkins, 1973 ) read! Brain organizes and consolidates information to be remembered information occurs through both automatic processing, or the of... Us organize information for your 10-year reunion curve illustrates that without exerting any to. About memory retrieval: it means you can encode additional information about sights,,. Can recall images ( mental pictures ) more easily than words alone and rhythm should aim for six–eight every.

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